| Students enrolled under preferential admission policies at elite universities have been widely concerned by the whole society. Many people question their low scores in the college entrance examination and poor academic performance at universities. Meanwhile, these students are prone to self-doubt, low self-confidence, high pressure and other non-cognitive problems due to their disadvantaged family background, the early education experience and the enrollment of preferential admission policies. Through qualitative interview of students from three elite universities, this paper analyzes the non-cognitive performance of students enrolled under preferential admission policies based on the theory of Impostor Syndrome. This theory describes a psychological pattern that people are unable to internalize achievements, doubt their ability and believe themselves unworthy of the title. The study finds that students enrolled under preferential admission policies attribute their success to external factors such as policies, others’ help and luck, which leads to the problem of Imposter Syndrome. They understand their lack of academic and skill preparation, and want to make up for it with extra effort, thereby falling into the cycle of Impostor Syndrome. They suffer from anxiety under the pressure of comparing themselves to their peers and therefore hide the gap by avoiding comparison. In addition, they refuse to be treated as a special group and refuse help for fear of the exposure of their special status. This study further clarifies the uniqueness of students enrolled under preferential admission policies at elite universities and identifies Impostor Syndrome as a dominant and specific non-cognitive performance of them. It also recommends alleviating the negative mindset by strengthening guidance in the first year of university, conducting team psychological mutual assistance, constructing positive opinion feedback, and facing academic failure positively.