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重点大学专项计划学生的非认知表现 ——基于“负担综合征”的质性研究
The Non-cognitive Performance of Students Enrolled under Preferential Admission Policies at Elite Universities: A Qualitative Study Based on "Impostor Syndrome"
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中文关键词专项计划学生  负担综合征  非认知表现
英文关键词students enrolled under preferential admission policies  imposter syndrome  non-cognitive performance
基金项目国家社会科学基金“十三五”规划2020年度教育学一般课题“2020年后高校倾斜性招生计划的公平成效和优化方案研究”(BIA200200)
作者单位
吴秋翔 中国人民大学 教育学院 
李立国 中国人民大学 教育学院 
中文摘要
      一直以来,专项计划学生受到社会的广泛关注,其中不乏质疑他们高考成绩较低、大学学业表现不佳等声音。然而,劣势家庭背景、早期教育以及受专项计划倾斜等因素亦使通过政策倾斜得以进入重点大学的专项生产生自我怀疑、不自信、压力大等非认知问题。本文通过访谈3所重点大学的专项生,以“负担综合征”为理论基础对其非认知表现进行解读,该理论描述了一种无法内化个人成就、怀疑自我能力、认为自己“名不副实”的心态。研究发现:专项生把成功录取归因为政策、他人帮助、运气等外部因素,诱发了“负担综合征”;他们了解自己缺乏学业与能力准备,希望通过额外努力来弥补,陷入“负担综合征循环”;他们在与同伴比较的压力下倍感焦灼,通过回避比较来掩饰差距;他们拒绝被当成特殊群体对待,因害怕被发现专项生身份而回避受助。研究进一步明确了专项生的独特性,把“负担综合征”作为其显性且特殊的非认知表现,并建议通过加强入学适应辅导、开展团体心理互助、构建正向舆论反馈、积极应对学业失败等途径缓解相应的负面心态。
英文摘要
      Students enrolled under preferential admission policies at elite universities have been widely concerned by the whole society. Many people question their low scores in the college entrance examination and poor academic performance at universities. Meanwhile, these students are prone to self-doubt, low self-confidence, high pressure and other non-cognitive problems due to their disadvantaged family background, the early education experience and the enrollment of preferential admission policies. Through qualitative interview of students from three elite universities, this paper analyzes the non-cognitive performance of students enrolled under preferential admission policies based on the theory of Impostor Syndrome. This theory describes a psychological pattern that people are unable to internalize achievements, doubt their ability and believe themselves unworthy of the title. The study finds that students enrolled under preferential admission policies attribute their success to external factors such as policies, others’ help and luck, which leads to the problem of Imposter Syndrome. They understand their lack of academic and skill preparation, and want to make up for it with extra effort, thereby falling into the cycle of Impostor Syndrome. They suffer from anxiety under the pressure of comparing themselves to their peers and therefore hide the gap by avoiding comparison. In addition, they refuse to be treated as a special group and refuse help for fear of the exposure of their special status. This study further clarifies the uniqueness of students enrolled under preferential admission policies at elite universities and identifies Impostor Syndrome as a dominant and specific non-cognitive performance of them. It also recommends alleviating the negative mindset by strengthening guidance in the first year of university, conducting team psychological mutual assistance, constructing positive opinion feedback, and facing academic failure positively.







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