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中美家庭第一代大学生的不同大学境遇
The Different Academic Experiences between Chinese and American First-Generation College Students from the Perspective of Higher Education Popularization
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中文关键词家庭第一代大学生  高等教育普及化  教育体制  弱势群体学生
英文关键词first-generation college students  popularization of higher education  education system  disadvantaged students
基金项目国家社会科学基金“十三五”规划课题“中国大学通识教育建设成效分类评估研究”(CIA190274)
作者单位
方士心 复旦大学 高等教育研究所 
陆 一 复旦大学 高等教育研究所 
中文摘要
      长期以来,中国大学生群体中绝大多数是家庭第一代大学生。随着2019年中国迈入高等教育普及化阶段,将会有越来越多的大学生父母培养出下一代大学生。未来第一代大学生数量将逐渐减少,不再是校园中的主体人群。目前在中国顶尖大学中,家庭非第一代(第二、三代)大学生已形成一定规模,他们受惠于家庭教育,在大学中显现出学习优势。美国比中国提早半个世纪进入高等教育普及化阶段。美国第一代大学生已经呈现相当大的学业困境,种族、移民和贫困问题叠加的复杂社会背景加剧了教育弱势的代际再生产。综述一系列实证研究结果,中国第一代大学生受益于高考的学力筛选和价值导向,加之普惠公办教育和传统文化信念的赋能,短期内有可能不至于陷入美国第一代大学生的绝对弱势,有机会实现学业追赶和社会地位的跃升。但长期来看,来自体制、政策与文化的有利因素很可能逐渐削弱,需要前瞻性的学术研究和政策支持。
英文摘要
      First-generation college students have been the majority in China for decades. As higher education in China has entered the popularization stage since 2019, the number of first-generation college students has gradually decreased. At present, among the top universities in China, the continued generation has reached a certain scale. Benefited from the education resource from their family, they have many advantages in academic activities. The United States has entered the popularization stage of higher education half a century earlier than China and has a long history of dealing with the academic problems of first-generation college students. The complex social background of race, immigration, and poverty has exacerbated the intergenerational reproduction of first-generation college students. The review of a series of empirical studies shows that Chinese first-generation college students have benefited from the academic selection and value orientation of the college entrance examination, as well as the inclusive public education system in China, and have been empowered by the Chinese traditional cultural beliefs. They are expected to be less likely to fall into the absolute disadvantages as the American first generations in short term and have more opportunities to catch up and achieve social mobility.







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