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世界一流大学教师工资规模、 结构与科研产出关系的实证研究 ——基于2002-2020年间36所美国大学的数据分析
An Empirical Study on the Relationship between Salary Scale, Salary Structure and Academic Research Output of World-Class University Teachers:Based on Data Analysis of 36 American Universities from 2002 to 2020
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中文关键词世界一流大学  教师  工资  科研产出  经费支出
英文关键词world-class universities  teachers  salary  research output  expenditure
基金项目国家自然科学基金青年项目“大学内部经费配置结构、模式及其与产出水平的关系研究”(71804164);浙江省哲学社会科学规划课题“一流大学经费规模、收支结构及其与科研产出关系的实证研究”(20NDJC051YB);2021年度深化教育评价改革专项课题“高校内部经费使用绩效评价研究”(202102)。
作者单位
毛建青 浙江工业大学 公共管理学院/现代大学制度研究中心 
陈文博 华东师范大学 教育学部教育管理学系/国家教育宏观政策研究院 
邹加严 浙江工业大学 公共管理学院/现代大学制度研究中心 
中文摘要
      基于36所美国世界一流大学18年间的校际面板数据,研究发现科研产出数量、影响力和综合表现分数分别呈“先降后升”“先平后降”与“持续下降”趋势,校均总工资绝对规模逐年增长,占校均总支出50%左右,师均工资呈增长趋势,校均工资结构多元且稳定。工资规模、结构与科研产出关系的OLS、随机效应和固定效应模型结果表明:在工资规模上,增加大学总工资支出、提高全职教师师均工资均可显著提升大学科研产出数量、影响力和综合表现,但总工资规模对科研产出数量的正向影响更明显,而师均工资则对科研产出影响力的正向影响更突出;在工资结构上,增加工资结构中的研究工资、支持类与服务类工资规模亦可显著提升科研产出数量、影响力和综合表现,其中,研究工资对科研产出数量和综合表现的正向影响更为突出,而支持类和服务类工资对科研产出影响力的正向影响更为显著;教学工资的增加能够提升科研产出数量与影响力,但全职教师工资规模的增加却仅有助于提升科研产出数量,对科研产出影响力和综合表现有明显抑制作用。基于研究发现,我国政府和世界一流大学建设高校需要继续优化大学经费支出结构,大幅提高教师的总工资和研究工资规模;变革工资制度,提升教师工资水平等。
英文摘要
      Based on the inter-university panel data of 36 U.S. world-class universities over 18 years, the study finds that the amount, impact, and overall performance of research output scores showed a "decreasing and then increasing", "flat and then decreasing", and "continuously decreasing" trend respectively. "The absolute size of the average university salary has been increasing by years, accounting for about 50% of the total average university expenditure. The size of the average teacher salary has been increasing, and the average university salary structure was diversified and stable. The results of OLS, random effects, and fixed effects models on the relationship between salary size, salary structure and research output show that: in terms of salary scale, increasing the total salary expenditure of universities and expanding the salary scale of full-time teachers have significantly increased the amount, influence, and overall performance of university academic research output, but the total salary scale had a significantly stronger and positive impact on the amount of academic research output. The average salary of teachers had a positive and stronger effect on the impact of academic research output. In terms of the salary structure, increasing the scale of research salary, and support and service salary in the salary structure have also significantly increased the amount, influence, and overall performance of academic research output. Among them, the positive impact of research salary was stronger on the number and overall performance of academic research output, while the positive influence of support and service salary was stronger on the impact of academic research output. The increase in teaching salary had significantly increased the amount and impact of academic research output, but the increase in the salary scale of full-time teachers have only increased the amount of academic research output, while decreased the influence and overall performance of academic research output. Based on the findings of the study, the government and the world-class-building universities in China need to continue to optimize the structure of university expenditure, significantly increase the size of total and research salaries, change the salary system, and raise the level of teachers' salaries, etc.







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